Germanium substrates

With more than 40 years of experience in germanium crystal pulling, our facility in Olen, Belgium is one of the few in the world capable of pulling dislocation-free germanium ingots. Diameters range from 2" to 12” (50 – 300mm).

Thanks to the closely-matching thermal and crystallographic properties of germanium and gallium arsenide, epi-ready germanium substrates provide an interesting alternative for the epitaxial growth and/or layer transfer of III-V compounds. For proper nucleation, the wafers are precisely "off-cut" towards the appropriate direction and have been epi-cleaned. To guarantee a pristine growth surface, all production steps are closely monitored using statistical process control, and wafers are carefully inspected. At the end, there is a 100% naked-eye inspection by a trained operator.

Product highlights: 


Dislocation density 0/cm2 (0 EPD)
Diameter 100mm (4”) and 150mm (6”)
Special diameter up to 300mm on request
Resistivity and Dopant  
Minimum resistivity at 20 °C  
p-type  0.005 Ω.cm
n-type  0.0050 Ω.cm
Maximum resistivity at 20 °C 40 Ω.cm
Radial dispersion on a single substrate  10%
Substrate Orientation  
Standard  (100) ± 0.5°
Substrate surface finish Standard: One side polished, one side diamond ground/etched.
Upon request: Double side polished, one side prime only.
Substrate edge finish and shape Edge ground and etched, straight or round
Roughness Polished side < 1 nm RMS
Surface status EPI-ready
Perpendicular strength   
Minimal/Typical 3 lbf / > 6 lbf
Diameter 100 mm (4”) 140 or 175 μm for solar cells, other thickness available upon request
Diameter 150 mm (6”)  225 μm for solar cells, other thickness available upon request



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