With more than 40 years of experience in germanium crystal pulling, our facility in Olen, Belgium is one of the few in the world capable of pulling dislocation-free germanium ingots. Diameters range from 4" to 12” (100 – 300mm).
Thanks to the closely-matching thermal and crystallographic properties of germanium and gallium arsenide, epi-ready germanium substrates provide an interesting alternative for the epitaxial growth and/or layer transfer of III-V compounds. For proper nucleation, the wafers are precisely "off-cut" towards the appropriate direction and have been epi-cleaned. To guarantee a pristine growth surface, all production steps are closely monitored using statistical process control, and wafers are carefully inspected. At the end, there is a 100% naked-eye inspection by a trained operator.
|Dislocation density||0/cm2 (0 EPD)|
|Diameter||100mm (4”) - 150mm (6”) - 200mm (8")
Special diameter up to 300mm on request
|Resistivity and Dopant|
|Minimum resistivity at 20 °C|
|Maximum resistivity at 20 °C||40 Ω.cm|
|Radial dispersion on a single substrate||10%|
|Standard||(100) ± 0.5°|
|Substrate surface finish||Standard: One side polished, one side diamond ground/etched.
Upon request: Double side polished, one side prime only.
|Substrate edge finish and shape||Edge ground and etched, straight or round|
|Roughness||Polished side < 1 nm RMS|
|Minimal/Typical||3 lbf / > 6 lbf|
|Diameter 100 mm (4”)||140 or 175 μm for solar cells, other thickness available upon request|
|Diameter 150 mm (6”)||225 μm for solar cells, other thickness available upon request|
|Diameter 200 mm (8")||450 µm or 625 µm, other thickness available upon request|