Germanium compounds and products are created during the various stages of the production flowsheet from raw materials to semiconductor substrate. Starting with Germanium concentrate chlorinated and purified into GeCl4 , GeCl4 hydrolized to GeO2 and GeO2 reduced to Ge bars. The Ge crystals are grown using Czochralski crystal pulling and further processed into either high purity crystals or Ge semiconductor wafers.
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