"Coating Materials & Thin Film Deposition Techniques"
By Dr. Friedrich Waibel, Thin Film Products AG, Balzers, Liechtenstein
and Dr. Martin Friz, Merck KGaA, Gernsheim, Germany
A large number of different deposition techniques are used for the production of thin films for optical applications, as outlined in chapter 'Thin Film Deposition Techniques' by H. K. Pulker. The two most important categories are physical vapor deposition (PVD), namely thermal vaporization and sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). It is obvious, that for each deposition technique suitable coating materials are required.
The PVD processes normally use inorganic elements or compounds and gases, whereas the CVD processes, dip coating and spinning, use liquid inorganic and organic compounds and gases.
Liquid compounds and gases are normally purchased directly from the producer, because they need no special preparation. Solid materials have to be compact and in the appropriate form or shape, free of gas inclusions or even be prepared according to a special recipe. Targets must also fulfill structure requirements (grain size, texture, precipitation). These operations are the task of companies specialized in the production of coating materials and targets. This chapter focuses on solid coating and sputtering materials. The requirements on these materials are discussed, their properties listed and their production described.
Earlier summary articles or chapters in monographs on coating materials have been written by H. A. Macleod (Macleod 1986) , H.K. Pulker (Pulker 1979, 1999) and E. Ritter (Ritter 1975). (continued in PDF format)